Product labels are everywhere. Take a look around, and you may notice them on beverages, candles, lip balms, and much more. We task labels with the job of conveying product information while helping us select one brand over another. Because of this, labels have a way of seamlessly blending into a product and consumers generally have no reason to give the label itself a second thought.
However, labels are more complex than most consumers realize. A product label is typically made up of four layers, each with a specific purpose. To better understand how product labels work, let’s peel back the layers of a label and discuss how each component plays a critical role in its overall performance.
Layer #1: Liner
The liner, also known as the backing or carrier, refers to the bottom layer of the label. The liner enables the label material to feed through the printer without any damage or resistance. The liner also protects the adhesive through the production process until it is ready to be applied. A silicone release agent coats the liner to allow the end-user to remove the label easily.
There are three types of liners that brands typically use: white paper liners, Kraft paper liners, and clear polyester liners. While all three liners can be applied either by hand or by machine, each has unique qualities to consider when choosing a liner.
White paper liners are the most economical option and thus are the most common. However, this type of liner is not recyclable. Although Kraft paper liners have a natural look, they are also not recyclable. Clear polyester liners are most efficient to produce, and are the only option that is recyclable.
Layer #2: Adhesive
For the label to effectively stick onto the product, an adhesive layer is required. The adhesive forms a bond between the label and the surface it is applied to, providing the ‘stickiness’ needed for the label to adhere. There are four common types of adhesives: permanent, removable, cold/freezing temperature, and all-temperature. The type of adhesive required depends on the environmental conditions that the product must withstand, such as temperature and moisture.
As its name suggests, permanent adhesive is used for one-time label applications. Permanent adhesive forms a strong and durable bond between the label and the surface. If the label is removed, it will likely leave a sticky residue, or the label itself might tear. On the other hand, removable adhesive provides a minimal, temporary bond and can be removed and reused.
Brands in the food and beverage industry often use cold/freezing temperature adhesives for products that require refrigeration. Finally, all-temperature is a general-purpose adhesive designed to withstand a range of environmental conditions.
Layer #3: Face Stock
The next layer is face stock — the visible top sheet material that consumers can see, feel, and interact with when they pick up a product with a label. Face stock refers to the layer that is printed on with branding, product information, and messaging. There is a wide range of face stock options available depending on the desired label look that brands aim to achieve, including:
Paper: Paper is the most widely used face stock, as it is the most economical and easily adaptable to various label printing methods. However, keep in mind that paper material isn’t moisture resistant or tear-proof.
Film: When durability is a concern, film is often the preferred face stock. Since film is made up of a synthetic or a plastic-type of material, it is resistant to moisture, heat, UV exposure, and other environmental conditions. Due to its flexibility, film face stock can conform to unique shapes and squeeze bottle applications.
Foil: Foil face stock consists of a thin layer of aluminum or alloy to produce a shiny, metallic appearance on the label.
Specialty Materials: To stand out on retail shelves, brands have the opportunity to explore specialty face stock materials, including fluorescent, holographic, and wood veneers.
Before selecting a face stock, it’s essential for brands first to evaluate their label needs. What type of product will the label be applied to? Will it be applied by hand or by a machine? Does the printing on the label need to withstand any harsh environment or conditions? These are all important questions to work through with an experienced Packaging Advisor.
Layer #4: Topcoat
The final layer is the topcoat — a vital step to protect the label from scuffing and damage. Topcoat adds an extra level of protection while enhancing the visual appeal with a finish. Brands primarily choose between two topcoat options: varnish and laminate.
Varnishes are thin coatings of silicon sealed over the top of the printed label, providing minimal protection against scuffing and smudging. Varnishes are typically available in gloss, matte, and satin finishes. Compared to laminates, varnishes are a more economical option. There are three main types of varnish techniques:
Flood: The varnish covers the entire printed image.
Spot: The varnish only covers a specific part of the image, maximizing contrast between matte and gloss surfaces.
Dimensional: The varnish is applied in varying layers to give the label a dimensional quality.
For a more durable topcoat option, laminates can be used to withstand smudges, scuffs, moisture, oil, and UV exposure. With the laminate process, a thin layer of film is applied to the surface of a label, providing a plastic barrier of protection. Laminates come in both gloss and matte finishes, as well as Thermal Transfer for secondary printing. Compared to varnishes, laminates offer a pronounced sheen and texture to the label.
Partner with Your Pacific Northwest Label Provider
To create an effective product label, it’s essential to understand the purpose of each layer and how it plays a role in overall label performance. By partnering with an experienced Packaging Advisor, we can help determine the best type of liner, adhesive, face stock, and topcoat to suit your specific label needs.
The BoxMaker has been providing label printing and production to our clients for over 27 years. As a leading resource for custom labels in the Pacific Northwest, we uphold the highest standard of excellence for our product and service offerings. Let’s develop a comprehensive game plan for your next label project. Schedule a consultation today.